# Dispatch asynchronous jobs

# From job to action

When it comes to dispatching your actions as jobs, implementing the handle method should typically be enough. The reason for that is you'll likely want to use the same arguments when running an action as an object (MyAction::run) and when dispatching it as a job (MyAction::dispatch).

For example, say you have an action that sends a report email to every member of a team.

class SendTeamReportEmail
{
    use AsAction;

    public function handle(Team $team): void
    {
        // Prepare report and send it to all $team->users.
    }
}

Using this handle method, you'll be dispatch it as a job by running SendTeamReportEmail::dispatch($someTeam).

However, if the logic around dispatching a job differs from the handle method, then you may implement the asJob method.

For example, we might want to send a full report only when dispatched as a job.

class SendTeamReportEmail
{
    use AsAction;

    public function handle(Team $team, bool $fullReport = false): void
    {
        // Prepare report and send it to all $team->users.
    }

    public function asJob(Team $team): void
    {
        $this->handle($team, true);
    }
}

# Dispatching jobs

# Asynchronously

Dispatching jobs asynchronously can be done using the dipatch method.

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatch($team);

Behind the scene, this will create a new JobDecorator and wrap your action inside it.

This means you cannot dispatch a job using the dispatch helper method.

// This will NOT work. ❌
dispatch(SendTeamReportEmail::make());

If you must use the dispatch helper method, then you'll need to use makeJob instead and pass it the action's arguments.

// This will work. ✅
dispatch(SendTeamReportEmail::makeJob($team));

You may also use the dispatchIf and dispatchUnless method to dispatch a job under a certain condition.

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatchIf($team->hasAddon('reports'), $team);

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatchUnless($team->missesAddon('reports'), $team);

# Synchronously

Although you can use SendTeamReportEmail::run($team) to execute an action immediately, you may also dispatch a synchronous job using the dispatchNow or dispatchSync methods.

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatchNow($team);

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatchSync($team);

# After the response was sent

You may delay the execution of an action after the response was sent to the user by using the dispatchAfterResponse method.

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatchAfterResponse($team);

# With chain

Finally, you may chain multiple jobs together by using the withChain method. Make sure to use the makeJob method to instantiate the chained jobs — otherwise your action will not be wrapped in a JobDecorator.

$chain = [
    OptimizeTeamReport::makeJob($team),
    SendTeamReportEmail::makeJob($team),
];

CreateNewTeamReport::withChain($chain)->dispatch($team);

Note that you can achieve the same result by using the chain method on the Bus Facade.

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Bus;

Bus::chain([
    CreateNewTeamReport::makeJob($team),
    OptimizeTeamReport::makeJob($team),
    SendTeamReportEmail::makeJob($team),
])->dispatch();

# Configuring jobs

When dispatching a job, you'll receive a PendingDispatch allowing you to chain any job configuration you need.

SendTeamReportEmail::dispatch($team)
    ->onConnection('my_connection')
    ->onQueue('my_queue')
    ->through(['my_middleware'])
    ->chain(['my_chain'])
    ->delay(60);
}

If you want to configure these options in the action itself so they are used by default whenever you dispatch it, you may use the configureJob method. It will provide the JobDecorator as a first argument which you can use to chain the same job configurations as above.

use Lorisleiva\Actions\Decorators\JobDecorator;

public function configureJob(JobDecorator $job): void
{
    $job->onConnection('my_connection')
        ->onQueue('my_queue')
        ->through(['my_middleware'])
        ->chain(['my_chain'])
        ->delay(60);
}

Additionally, you may use any of the properties below to further configure and/or adjust the retry-logic of your jobs.

class SendTeamReportEmail
{
    use AsAction;

    public string $jobConnection = 'my_connection';
    public string $jobQueue = 'my_queue';
    public int $jobTries = 10;
    public int $jobMaxExceptions = 3;
    public int $jobBackoff = 60 * 5;
    public int $jobTimeout = 60 * 30;
    public int $jobRetryUntil = 3600 * 2;

    // ...
}

Since you might want to define the backoff and the retryUntil dynamically, you may instead used the getJobBackoff and getJobRetryUntil methods respectively.

class SendTeamReportEmail
{
    use AsAction;

    public function getJobBackoff(): array
    {
        return [30, 60, 120];
    }

    public function getJobRetryUntil(): DateTime
    {
        return now()->addMinutes(30);
    }

    // ...
}

Also note that you can use the configureJob method to set the tries, maxExceptions and/or timeout job properties.

public function configureJob(JobDecorator $job): void
{
    $job->setTries(10)
        ->setMaxExceptions(3)
        ->setTimeout(60 * 30);
}

# Registering job middleware

You may also attach job middleware to your actions by returning them from the getJobMiddleware method.

public function getJobMiddleware(): array
{
    return [new RateLimited('reports')];
}

# Batching jobs

Note that job batching is also supported. Simply use the makeJob method to create many jobs inside a batch.

$batch = Bus::batch([
    SendTeamReportEmail::makeJob($firstTeam),
    SendTeamReportEmail::makeJob($secondTeam),
    SendTeamReportEmail::makeJob($thirdTeam),
])->then(function (Batch $batch) {
    // All jobs completed successfully...
})->catch(function (Batch $batch, Throwable $e) {
    // First batch job failure detected...
})->finally(function (Batch $batch) {
    // The batch has finished executing...
})->dispatch();

When dispatching jobs in batch, you might want to access the $batch instance from the asJob method. You may do this by prepending your arguments with ?Batch $batch. Note that the ? is important since the job might also be dispatched normally — i.e. not in a batch. Laravel Actions uses Reflection to only provide that argument when you request it.

use Illuminate\Bus\Batch;

public function asJob(?Batch $batch, Team $team)
{
    if ($batch && $batch->cancelled()) {
        return;
    }

    $this->handle($team, true);
}

Note that you may also inject the JobDecorator instead of the ?Batch if you need to.

use Lorisleiva\Actions\Decorators\JobDecorator;

public function asJob(JobDecorator $job, Team $team)
{
    if ($job->batch() && $job->batch()->cancelled()) {
        return;
    }

    $this->handle($team, true);
}

# Unique jobs

The Laravel framework provides a ShouldBeUnique trait that you can use on a job to ensure it runs only once for a given identifier and for a given amount of time. With a traditional job, it looks like this.

use Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\ShouldQueue;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\ShouldBeUnique;

class SendTeamReportEmail implements ShouldQueue, ShouldBeUnique
{
    public Team $team;
    public int $uniqueFor = 3600;

    public function uniqueId()
    {
        return $this->team->id;
    }

    // ...
}

With Laravel Actions, you can still achieve this by adding the ShouldBeUnique trait to your action.

  • To define the unique identifier you may use the $jobUniqueId property or the getJobUniqueId method.
  • To define the amount of time in which a job should stay unique, you may use the $jobUniqueFor property or the getJobUniqueFor method.

When you use either of these methods, their arguments will be the same as the job's arguments themselves.

For instance, the example above can be rewriten as an action like so:

use Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\ShouldBeUnique;

class SendTeamReportEmail implements ShouldBeUnique
{
    use AsAction;

    public int $jobUniqueFor = 3600;

    public function getJobUniqueId(Team $team)
    {
        return $this->team->id;
    }

    // ...
}

By default, the default cache driver will be used to obtain the lock and therefore maintain the unicity of the jobs being dispatched. You may specify which cache driver to use for a particular action by implementing the getJobUniqueVia method.

public function getJobUniqueVia()
{
    return Cache::driver('redis');
}

Finally, note that Laravel now has a baked-in WithoutOverlapping job middleware that can limit the concurrent processing of a job. If that's all you're trying to achieve, then it might be worth considering using this middleware instead of the ShouldBeUnique trait.

# Job tags and display name

If you're using Horizon, you might be interested in providing custom tags for a job to monitor it and even change its display name.

You may do this in an action by implementing the getJobTags and getJobDisplayName methods respectively.

class SendTeamReportEmail
{
    use AsAction;

    public function getJobTags(Team $team): array
    {
        return ['report', 'team:'.$team->id];
    }

    public function getJobDisplayName(): string
    {
        return 'Send team report email';
    }

    // ...
}

Note that you can get the job's arguments from both these methods' arguments.

# Asserting jobs were pushed

When dispatching actions as job, you might want to use Queue::fake() to assert that a certain job was pushed on your tests.

For example, this is how you would assert that a regular job was pushed.

Queue::fake();

// Do something...

Queue::assertPushed(SendTeamReportEmail::class);

However since the action itself is wrapped inside a JobDecorator that acts as a job, you cannot do the same with an action. Instead, you would need to assert that a JobDecorator was pushed and then add a callback that ensure the JobDecorator is decorating your action.

Queue::fake();

// Do something...

Queue::assertPushed(JobDecorator::class, function (JobDecorator $job) {
    return $job->decorates(SendTeamReportEmail::class);
});

Admittedly, this is a lot less easy to read and pretty inconvenient if we need to do this in all of our tests. That's why Laravel actions provides static helper methods on the action itself.

To assert that a certain action was dispatched as a job, all you need to do is use the assertPushed static method directly on the action. The example above can then be rewritten like this:

Queue::fake();

// Do something...

SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushed();

Much cleaner isn't it?

You may also provide a number to assert a job was dispatched a certain amount of times.

SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushed(3);

Or provide a callback to assert a job matching this condition was dispatched. The callback will receive the following four arguments:

  1. The action itself. Here it would be an instance of SendTeamReportEmail.
  2. The job's arguments. That is, the arguments you provided when calling SendTeamReportEmail::dispatch(...).
  3. The JobDecorator that decorates your action.
  4. The name of the queue that was used.
SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushed(function ($action, $arguments) {
    return ($team = $arguments[0])->hasAddon('reports');
});

Or you may use both a number of dispatch and a callback.

SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushed(3, function ($action, $arguments) {
    return ($team = $arguments[0])->hasAddon('reports');
});

Finally, you may also use assertNotPushed and/or assertPushedOn to assert a job was not dispatched and/or that it was dispatched on a particular queue respectively.

SendTeamReportEmail::assertNotPushed();
SendTeamReportEmail::assertNotPushed($callback);
SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushedOn($queue);
SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushedOn($queue, $numberOfDispatch);
SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushedOn($queue, $callback);
SendTeamReportEmail::assertPushedOn($queue, $numberOfDispatch, $callback);

In the next page, we'll see how to make our actions listen for events.